CHARLOTTE, N.C. (AP) _ A coalition says North Carolina failed to protect the civil rights of residents of color when it approved permits for the proposed Atlantic Coast Pipeline.
The groups want the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's civil rights division to require the state Department of Environmental Quality to rescind the permits and perform a more thorough analysis.
The News & Observer of Raleigh reported first on their complaint, which accuses the state and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of failing to consider the health and environmental impact. It also says the state obscured the route's disproportionate impact on blacks and Native Americans by comparing demographics within a mile of the pipeline to the rest of each county, rather than the rest of the state.
``The State agencies appear to have relied on FERC's flawed analysis of environmental justice without any separate analysis,'' the groups said in the letter. ``Just because there is a low population concentration does not mean people of low income or people of color would not be disproportionately impacted.''
The letter also noted FERC and the state failed to compare the preferred route with alternatives, noting that a route under early consideration would have passed through ``wealthier and predominantly white communities near Raleigh'' as the $5 billion project carries fracked natural gas from West Virginia through Virginia and North Carolina.
FBI offering reward in Pine Ridge killing investigation
PINE RIDGE, S.D. (AP) _ The FBI is offering a reward of up to $2,500 for information in a slaying on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation last fall.
Twenty-four-year-old Raymond Waters Jr. was found dead inside a burned mobile home in Allen on Oct. 16. The FBI says an autopsy concluded he had died before the fire, likely from ax blows, and the fire might have been an act of arson intended to conceal the killing.
The Rapid City Journal reports a juvenile has been charged with second-degree murder in Ray's death. Water's uncle, 45-year-old Nathaniel Waters, was charged in March with being an accessory and lying to federal investigators. He has pleaded not guilty.
Authorities have not said if they are seeking additional suspects.
Information from: Rapid City Journal, http://www.rapidcityjournal.com
Irish prime minister thanks Choctaw Nation in Oklahoma
DURANT, Okla. (AP) _ The prime minister of Ireland has visited members of a Native American tribe in Oklahoma to thank them for a gift sent 171 years ago.
Members of the Choctaw Nation collected $170 in 1847 and sent it to Dublin to help feed the Irish during a potato famine. The money would be worth about $4,400 today.
Prime Minister Leo Varadkar met with tribal members in the southern Oklahoma city of Durant as part of a weeklong trip to the U.S. He said the gift is a sacred memory and bond.
The gathering included Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin, who said she was supporting the Choctaw Nation and Oklahomans.
Choctaw Chief Gary Batton visited Ireland last year to attend the unveiling of a sculpture called Kindred Spirits that commemorates the relationship between the tribe and Ireland.
New Mexico teacher develops braille code for Navajo
FARMINGTON, N.M. (AP) _ A public school teacher in a New Mexico town situated near the country's largest American Indian reservation has developed a braille code for the Navajo language.
Carol Green, who began developing vision problems as a child and is now a teacher for blind and visually impaired students in Farmington, developed a system of raised dots that enables people to read and write the Navajo language through touch, The Daily Times reported .
The Navajo braille is based off the English code but it eliminates certain letters. The new braille also adds a prefix code for vowels and how to pronounce them.
``The advantage of having this code for the reader is that they can distinguish and pronounce everything properly,'' Green said.
Learning the basics of the Navajo language from her grandparents, Green said that exposure started a lifelong interest in learning more of the language.
Green learned how to read and write braille in 2009 after her vision continued to deteriorate. Green said that she wanted to advance her learning of the Navajo language, so she inquired with the Braille Authority of North America in 2013 to discover a braille code for Navajo did not exist.
Green went to work and developed the first code for Navajo.
Before joining the Farmington Municipal School District in 2010, Green also taught at schools in Shiprock and Red Mesa, Arizona.
Green also created the new braille code so the Navajo students she teaches could have an opportunity to learn the language, she said.
``I thought if I am going to develop it for myself, then I might as well share it so these children have that opportunity. The same as their peers,'' Green said.
In a resolution approved in October 2015, the Navajo Nation Board of Education adopted the Navajo braille code to teach to blind and visually impaired tribal members.
Information from: The Daily Times, http://www.daily-times.com
Native American identity absent from urban Oklahoma schools
By BEN FELDER
OKLAHOMA CITY (AP) _ Most of Oklahoma's nearly 130,000 Native American students attend school in small towns, often in communities where their tribe's history is woven into the town's patchwork.
But for the 20 percent of Native students who attend a school in the state's two largest metro areas, cultural connections can be harder to find, especially when it comes to a specific identity.
``Our Native program doesn't include Native language because I have 77 tribes represented (throughout the district), so if I pick one language someone is going to be upset or left out,'' said Star Yellowfish, director of Native American student services for Oklahoma City Public Schools.
The state Department of Education counts more than 1,100 American Indian students in the Oklahoma City school district. But that number represents students with a variety of different tribal affiliations, the largest being Choctaw, Cherokee and Creek.
While Oklahoma City schools have more Native students than most districts, those students are spread out among nearly 100 schools, which can make it tough for a student to see others who share the same cultural identity.
Connecting Native students with each other can be especially important in an urban school system, said George Shields, director of Indian Education for Putnam City Schools.
``In a rural setting, a lot of Native kids are going to get to see grandma and grandpa, uncles and aunts, and feel more connected to their family and their heritage,'' Shields said. ``Our kids don't get that. A lot of the (Native American) families in my district have moved here for a job and it might involve taking that student out of their culture.''
School districts with Indian Education programs, like Putnam City, often provide tutoring, mentoring, test preparation workshops and cultural classes for Native American students.
Districts use parent committees and advisory groups to make decisions on how to disburse funding from Title VI and the federal Johnson-O'Malley Program.
However, some of the federal funding was frozen based on Native American student counts in 1994, even though most school districts in the area have seen their Native American student populations significantly increase since then.
The adjustment to a large urban school is a challenge for some Native American families, especially if the parents' own experience was attending a tribal school when they were younger.
Sheril Thompson, director of Indian Education for the Mid-Del school district, said she often works with Native American families who recently moved to the city and struggle with getting acclimated.
``A lot of your rural schools are sitting in a tribe and they have so many resources right there. Whereas we are up here with not a whole lot,'' Thompson said.
Jillian Palomino, who is Cherokee, is one of around 55 Native American students at Del City High School. But she said it's hard to know those other students because of the school's large size.
``I'm sure if I lived in Tahlequah my heritage would be more of a part of my life,'' said Palomino, referring to the capital city of the Cherokee Nation. ``But being here in the city it's not as much a part of your life.''
Logan Seeley, a senior at Carl Albert High School who is Choctaw, said he'd like to see his classes go deeper with Native American history, especially in a community where there aren't as many chances to learn about the culture outside of school.
His great grandfather's skin was dark and he faced racism because of it. Logan wants to know that history and he wants to learn it in the classroom.
``In Oklahoma history we went over how tribes got here, but that's about it,'' Seeley said.
Phil Gover grew up in the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony in Nevada and he now wants to create a school in Oklahoma City that not only teaches Native American history, but incorporates a Native perspective in all curriculum areas.
``We have a critical mass of Native students in the city that we can serve with a very different take on curriculum and content,'' said Gover, who is leading an effort to launch the Sovereign Community School.
Gover's group is awaiting a response from the Oklahoma City Public Schools after filing an application to open the proposed charter school in 2019, the Oklahoman reported . The application sets a goal to serve 500 mostly Native students within a few years of opening.
``Underlying our school is the notion that Native students will learn better because they are given access to a curriculum that shows Native people in classes outside of history,'' Gover said. ``We are going to read awesome books in our literature class, but we are going to read books by Native people that talk about Native experiences.
``The real idea is you see yourself reflected in the things you are learning about and that raises your engagement.''
Nationally, American Indian students are often highlighted as an academically underachieving student group, especially within the federal government's Bureau of Indian Education school network, where many students have had to overcome generations of forced disenfranchisement.
But there is evidence American Indian students in Oklahoma's public school system perform well, especially compared to other states.
In early 2017, the state Department of Education highlighted Oklahoma's nation-leading scores in fourth- and eighth-grade math and reading for Native students.
In Mid-Del schools, Thompson said over 200 of the district's Native students participate in a gifted and talented program.
The Oklahoma Indian Student Honor Society is a program that not only celebrates academic success among Native American students, but it also offers a chance for students to connect with their heritage in deeper ways, Thompson said.
``In order to get cultural points for the Oklahoma Indian Student Honor Society, many of our (Native) students go out and read to our elementary school kids ... from culturally relevant books the district purchased,'' Thompson said.
Gover said the challenge many Native students in an urban school system face is connecting to their cultural identity, rather than conforming to the world around them.
``Among urban Indians, at least this was my experience ... if you are not already very closely tied to your culture (when you enter school) it can be really hard to keep that part of you,'' Gover said. ``Everything about our system and our schools ... pressures them to conform, to assimilate, to become less like their cultural identity is and become more of the mainstream culture.''
Gover hopes he can prevent a whole new generation from losing their Native American culture, especially those growing up in Oklahoma City.
Information from: The Oklahoman, http://www.newsok.com